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Study Guide Help!  

(First page, with #1 through #13)

1.       D - This is almost the exact definition.

2.       B - This is almost the exact definition.

3.       A – A hypothesis is a possible explanation for an observation. Only A explains everything about the observation.

4.       D – You cannot design a procedure for an experiment if you haven’t got a problem to work on yet. Or analyze data. Or guess an explanation for a problem you haven’t identified yet.

5.       A – Compare, compare, compare. Control groups are all about comparison.

6.       D – The best way to present percentages of a whole, in a visual way, is in two pie charts of percentages. The table in C was close, but it included the data in micrograms. We wanted it in percentages.

7.       C – Control groups are not experimented upon or given the treatment you’re testing.

8.       C – Dependent variables are the variables we measure- the ones affected by the experiment. We’re measuring how fast the wounds heal.

9.       D - This is almost the exact definition.

10.   B – For A, simply believing an experiment was performed correctly isn’t as powerful as actually obtaining the same results. In C, many experiments with terrible designs have good hypotheses. That doesn’t matter. As far as D, peer review journals aren’t always accurate.

11.   B – Dependent variables are the variables we measure- the ones affected by the experiment. We’re measuring how heart rates are affected.

12.   C – Tricky tricky! We want one group for each supplement (2) PLUS a control group. We always need a control group for comparison. So, 2 + 1 = 3.

13.   B – This one is worded in an unusual way. “Future location” is referring to the surface the anti-bacterial material will be put. It makes sense to test the surface first, and then test the surface after the material is put on.

(Pharmaceutical company drug trial page)

1.       D – Information from an experiment is called Data.

2.       C – Control groups are used for comparison, and are frequently given placebos.

3.       A – This is almost the exact definition.

4.       D – Each choice would help the scientists to ensure consistency of variables observed during the experiment, except D. This option would have no effect on the experiment.

5.       B – An independent researcher does not work for the company, and therefore would most likely have no opinions or beliefs that would affect the results.

6.       A – Pre-testing is a helpful way to ensure that the independent variable (in this case the pill) is actually what causes the change in the dependent variable.

7.       C – The change in memory is what is affected by the experiment, and it’s therefore what is being measured.

1.       D – Scientific experiments are most valid when they only test one variable.

2.       D – This is almost the exact definition.

3.       A – The different amounts of sunlight available to the bean seeds is what causes the differences in growth. (IF the amount of sunlight changes, THEN the bean seeds will grow differently.)

(Strawberry farmer page)

1.       A – Find “6.0” in the left column of the table, and to the right of it is “0.54,” which is the measurement of pounds per plant.

2.       C – From 4.5 to 6.5 on the table, the corresponding measurements for strawberry production go UP from 0.44 to 0.57 (and from 5892 to 7750), and then continuing on from 6.5 to 8.5, they go back DOWN from 0.57 to 0.40 (and from 7750 to 5439).

3.       B – Optimum means “best.” The highest numbers for strawberry production are found next to 6.5.

4.       C – You don’t really have to know what “acidic” or “alkaline” mean yet to figure this out. Think of it like a number line. According to the question, numbers lower than 7 (4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5) are described as “acidic.” Numbers higher than 7 (7.5, 8.0, 8.5) are described as “alkaline.” We know from the previous question that 6.5 (from the “acidic” group) is the best for growing strawberries. Since 6.5 is the closest to 7, which is the middle, 6.5 is just slightly on the “acidic” side of 7.

5.       B – The hypothesis was that 5.5 is the best. According to the evidence, 6.5 is. The hypothesis was wrong.